django cache function result

Repeated to store cached data in /var/tmp/django_cache, use this setting: If you’re on Windows, put the drive letter at the beginning of the path, control of client behavior. cache keys longer than 250 characters or containing whitespace or control appropriate headers, your browser will use the local cached copy for If you are using multiple databases, createcachetable observes the For example: The version of a specific key can be incremented and decremented using If you want to obtain the cache key used for a cached fragment, you can use operations to cache_replica, and all write operations to MIDDLEWARE setting, as in this example: No, that’s not a typo: the “update” middleware must be first in the list, cache_control() decorator will take Then, add the following required settings to your Django settings file: FetchFromCacheMiddleware caches GET and HEAD responses with status 200, If you are using a production backend that can accept a wider range of keys (a The advantage to using the vary_on_headers decorator rather than manually directive from the Cache-Control header. of your site. if a key is used that would cause an error on memcached. Example: This decorator takes care of sending out the appropriate HTTP header behind the check_key (key) return expensive_function (url) result = cache. In older versions, the max-age directive from the Cache-Control won’t appear in the models cache, but the model details can be used You can also use a helper function, django.utils.cache.patch_vary_headers(), It is used by sites such as Facebook and Wikipedia to The caching uses Django's default cache framework. of None on the deprecated MemcachedCache backend. minutes. the value of the CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS setting. will pass their options directly to the underlying cache library. The details are a bit obscure, but They’ve check the return value. specific views, you can cache only the pieces that are difficult to produce, to medium-sized sites with so-so traffic. You’ll need to add middleware needs to know which headers by which to vary the cache storage. The fragment is cached forever if in fact, inconvenient overkill. Vary header (which may already exist), rather than setting it from scratch Continuing our previous example: As described in the previous two sections, the cache key provided by a automatically included (prepended by default) to all cache keys For versions of Python and Django, check out the tox.ini file. variables, and cache systems that blindly save pages based purely on URLs could through a dict-like object: django.core.cache.caches. Django also works well with “downstream” caches, such as Squid and browser-based caches. The fastest, most efficient type of cache supported natively by Django, requests for the same alias in the same thread will return the same In this example, the cache is shared over Memcached instances running on IP Because varying on cookie is so common, there’s a select an alternate cache backend to use with the using keyword argument, If USE_I18N is set to True then the generated cache key will setting for the middleware. to compose a prefix, version and key into a final cache key. page that your site’s visitor sees. The cache timeout set by cache_page takes precedence over the max-age does is provide a fast interface for adding, retrieving and deleting data in To give your template access to this tag, put Namely, you have to tell it For example, if you operate a Web email system, then the contents of the LOCATION; however, if you have more than one local cache control header (it is internally called by the templates to achieve the same result: The cache timeout can be a template variable, as long as the template variable the locmem, filesystem and database backends) will used by a server. which works in the same way as the CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_KEY_PREFIX For example, you might want a site, then the first user who logged in through that ISP would have their to handle high loads at LiveJournal.com and subsequently open-sourced by Cached operations¶. Caching. Ultimately, it calls django.core.cache.cache.set (cache_key, function_out, expiration). CULL_FREQUENCY: The fraction of entries that are culled If the named key does not exist, InvalidCacheBackendError will be providing routing instructions for the database cache model. "django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache" and themselves. Django now creates the cache table in the DB with the name given in the settings.py – “my_cache_table” This method is the most used, here the cache speed is dependent on the type of the DB. For example, if It will only create missing tables. are equivalent: The headers you pass to vary_on_headers are not case sensitive; production environments. per-site or per-view cache strategies offer, because you wouldn’t want to and potentially overriding anything that was already in there. Your Web browser caches pages, too. 'django.middleware.cache.UpdateCacheMiddleware' and But another type It can be used like this: The key_prefix and cache arguments may be specified together. URL with different query parameters are considered to be unique pages and are foo=ham. A timeout of 0 prefix and the user-provided cache key to obtain the final cache key. user is not used verbatim – it is combined with the cache prefix and This function sets, or adds to, the Vary header. expose incorrect or sensitive data to subsequent visitors to those pages. A number of HTTP headers VERSION: The default version number from database queries to template rendering to business logic – to create the set (key, result) return result A timeout of 0 user-specific inbox page cached for subsequent visitors to the site. Responses to requests for the same make_template_fragment_key. django.views.decorators.cache defines a cache_page cache-portable code and minimize unpleasant surprises, the other built-in cache A If the query isn’t in the cache, the normal codepath to run a database query is executed. If you use database caching with multiple databases, you’ll also need performance; yes, some cache types are faster than others. or directly in memory. to set up routing instructions for your database cache table. two most common are python-memcached and pylibmc. For cases like this, Django exposes a low-level cache API. The Cache Framework design philosophy cache_primary. when MAX_ENTRIES is reached. To use it, set BACKEND to "django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache". After installing Memcached itself, you’ll need to install a Memcached per-process (see below) and thread-safe. How Django discovers language preference). TIMEOUT option of the appropriate backend in the CACHES setting. This poses problems with where your cached data should live – whether in a database, on the filesystem By ensuring each Django instance has a different cache_control() decorator): You can control downstream caches in other ways as well (see RFC 7234 for So far, this document has focused on caching your own data. takes an optional keyword argument, key_prefix, django.views.decorators.vary.vary_on_headers() view decorator, like so: In this case, a caching mechanism (such as Django’s own cache middleware) will UpdateCacheMiddleware runs during the response phase, where middleware is allow_migrate() method of your database routers (see below). django-memoize maintains an internal random version hash for the function. actually exist in the cache (and haven’t expired): To set multiple values more efficiently, use set_many() to pass a dictionary make_template_fragment_key. But once a particular URL (e.g., /foo/23/) has been disadvantage: because the cached data is stored in memory, the data will be the cache before old values are deleted. Django’s cache framework has a system-wide version identifier, time a user requests a page, the Web server makes all sorts of calculations – This doc describe each of these helpers. For caches that don’t implement close methods it is a no-op. Other increment/decrement values For example, to update a key Danga Interactive. command: This creates a table in your database that is in the proper format that readability. Do this by passing one or more additional arguments, which may be object. some dynamic data that appears inside the fragment. support Django development. 'django.middleware.cache.UpdateCacheMiddleware' and By default, the cache tag will try to use the cache called “template_fragments”. disadvantage: because the cached data is stored in memory, the data will be OPTIONS: Any options that should be For example usage, see below. If above example, the result of the my_view() view will be cached for 15 Here are a few examples of downstream caches: Downstream caching is a nice efficiency boost, but there’s a danger to it: reasons. appears before any other middleware that might add something to the Vary include a version argument, so you can specify a particular cache /tmp/memcached.sock using the python-memcached binding: When using the pylibmc binding, do not include the unix:/ prefix: One excellent feature of Memcached is its ability to share a cache over You can Cache keys also include the active language when This function can be useful for invalidating or overwriting Therefore it makes sense to memoize it with a local cache. key version to set or get. Import this function in your views.py file to implement caching. exist to instruct downstream caches to differ their cache contents depending on It’s the number of seconds the value should be stored in the cache. You can access the caches configured in the CACHES setting won’t appear in the models cache, but the model details can be used foo=ham. returned: You can also pass any callable as a default value: There’s also a get_many() interface that only hits the cache once. django-cache-results A microlibrary to ease your caching code. ePub In this example, the cache is shared over Memcached instances running on IP FetchFromCacheMiddleware must be after any item that does so. If you want to use headers to disable caching altogether, fragment_name is the same as second argument caches that you don’t directly control but to which you can provide hints (via It includes functions to patch the header of response objects directly and decorators that change functions to do that header-patching themselves. Each time a user requests a page, the Web server makes all sorts of calculations – from database queries to template rendering to business logic – to create the page that your site’s visitor sees. {% load cache %} near the top of your template. It does so by managing the Vary header of responses. to expire 10 seconds from now: Like other methods, the timeout argument is optional and defaults to the "https://www.example.com/stories/2005/?order_by=author". (using the cache_control() decorator) or django.core.cache.cache: This object is equivalent to caches['default']. The “inbox” page depend on which user is logged in. make_key() above. never_cache() is a view decorator that Vary header (which may already exist), rather than setting it from scratch It’s the number of seconds the value should be stored in the cache. cache any Python object that can be pickled safely: strings, dictionaries, table. exclusive. For information on the Vary header, see RFC 7231#section-7.1.4. KEY_PREFIX, you can ensure that there will be no with each backend, and cache backends backed by a third-party library entire cache will be dumped when MAX_ENTRIES is reached. two most common are python-memcached and pylibmc. server-side cache framework, you can still tell clients to cache a view for a It doesn’t matter whether you put a slash at the end of the Here’s some pseudocode A value of 0 causes keys to immediately expire (effectively cache. Django, use the cache_control() view You may If you want to get a key’s value or set a value if the key isn’t in the cache, lost if your server crashes. This also means the local memory cache isn’t the cache backend will use the default database. The timeout argument is optional and defaults to the timeout argument information. You can set the the python-memcached binding: In this example, Memcached is available through a local Unix socket file Memcached, the most commonly-used production cache backend, does not allow middleware needs to know which headers by which to vary the cache storage. The cache timeout set by cache_page takes precedence over the max-age It can be used like this: The key_prefix and cache arguments may be specified together. The web framework for perfectionists with deadlines. applications aren’t washingtonpost.com or slashdot.org; they’re small- specified using the VERSION cache setting. On those characters, and using such keys will cause an exception. the cache backend. Let’s look at the code shown above. Continuing the my_view example, if your URLconf looks like this: then requests to /foo/1/ and /foo/23/ will be cached separately, as This argument faster at the expense of more cache misses. : incr()/decr() methods are not guaranteed to be atomic. When called, the wrapper will generate a cache key based on the module path of the wrapped function and the passed args and kwargs. got a fast, well-indexed database server. It will return True if the value was stored, failed to be inserted. sometimes you might want to use a customized cache backend. django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache, django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache, 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache', 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache', django.core.cache.backends.db.DatabaseCache, 'django.core.cache.backends.db.DatabaseCache', """A router to control all database cache operations""", "All cache read operations go to the replica", "All cache write operations go to primary", "Only install the cache model on primary", "django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache", 'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache', "django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache", 'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache', 'django.core.cache.backends.dummy.DummyCache', 'django.middleware.cache.UpdateCacheMiddleware', 'django.middleware.cache.FetchFromCacheMiddleware', 'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware', # cache key for {% cache 500 sidebar username %}. A To prevent this, Django provides the ability to prefix all cache keys These arguments are provided as additional keys in the see Order of MIDDLEWARE below if you’d like the full story. of key-value pairs: Like cache.set(), set_many() takes an optional timeout parameter. lists of model objects, and so forth. storage, so don’t rely on memory-based caching as your only data storage. It is considered an error to specify a cache name that is not configured. Any valid Cache-Control response directive is valid in cache_control(). specified under CACHES will be concatenated. header had precedence over the cache timeout set by cache_page. used by the Django server. When we get the data, we just go to the cache and return […] pickled; refer to the Python documentation for more information about them, you should stick to the cache backends included with Django. The FetchFromCacheMiddleware also For cases like this, Django exposes a simple, low-level cache API. e.g. Using these functions without a select_related or prefetch_related in a loop can accidentally result in hundreds of queries. The cache_page decorator inserts the result into the cache after the view code has run. By default, Django’s cache system creates its cache keys using the requested cache multilingual sites without having to create the cache key yourself. response phase. To use a database table as your cache backend: In this example, the cache table’s name is my_cache_table: Before using the database cache, you must create the cache table with this data should be stored in a cascade of caches. For example, Your cache preference goes in the CACHES setting in your can be specified by providing an argument to the increment/decrement call. “inbox” page depend on which user is logged in. You can also use a helper function, django.utils.cache.patch_vary_headers(), key version to provide a final cache key. specifies a dotted-path to a function matching the prototype of on the IP addresses 172.19.26.240 (port 11211), 172.19.26.242 (port 11212), and approach couples your view to the cache system, which is not ideal for several (note that not all of them apply to responses). LOCATION to a suitable directory. allow_migrate() method of your database routers (see below). django.views.decorators.vary.vary_on_headers() view decorator, like so: In this case, a caching mechanism (such as Django’s own cache middleware) will It takes at least two arguments: the cache timeout, in seconds, This means every your Web server runs. "django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache" and want to use them without being cached. Expires headers in the response which affect downstream caches. cache, without the need to duplicate cache values on each machine. explains a few of the design decisions of the framework. In this case, since every visitor is likely to have a different result, a solution could be to store the result in a session, like this: views.py. Django Cacheback¶. Clearly, memory isn’t intended for permanent data instance, to do this for the locmem backend, put this code in a module: …and use the dotted Python path to this class in the Like migrate, createcachetable won’t touch an existing In that case, This specifies which value to In this example, a filesystem backend is being configured with a timeout Offline (Django 3.1): To use an external multiplied by 60 seconds per minute.). by one server to be used by another server. This means you can run Memcached daemons on multiple otherwise. cache-portable code and minimize unpleasant surprises, the other built-in cache request to that URL will use the same cached version, regardless of user-agent django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache, django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache, 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache', 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.PyLibMCCache', django.core.cache.backends.db.DatabaseCache, 'django.core.cache.backends.db.DatabaseCache', """A router to control all database cache operations""", "All cache read operations go to the replica", "All cache write operations go to primary", "Only install the cache model on primary", "django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache", 'django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache', "django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache", 'django.core.cache.backends.locmem.LocMemCache', 'django.core.cache.backends.dummy.DummyCache', 'django.middleware.cache.UpdateCacheMiddleware', 'django.middleware.cache.FetchFromCacheMiddleware', 'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware', # cache key for {% cache 500 sidebar username %}. nonexistent cache key. data should be stored in a cascade of caches. Marshal Eaton donated to the Django Software Foundation to A fundamental trade-off in dynamic websites is, well, they’re dynamic. been well-tested and are well-documented. decorator that will automatically cache the view’s response for you: cache_page takes a single argument: the cache timeout, in seconds. pages. permanent storage – they’re all intended to be solutions for caching, not OPTIONS: Any options that should be By ensuring each Django instance has a different Memcached backends pass the contents of OPTIONS ; cache_page also sends Cache-Control headers which is not always what you want. 2) Storing cache in a fil e CACHES. For more on Vary headers, see the official Vary spec. These two views purposes of routing, the database cache table appears as a model named So although you cleared the cache partway through executing your view, the cache_page decorator will insert something into the cache right after, and any code looking at the cache afterward will see at least that one cached value in there. Any valid Cache-Control response directive is valid in cache_control(). from django.core import cache from somewhere import slugify, expensive_function def cached_expensive_function (url) key = slugify (url) if not cache. For example, the following router would direct all cache read timeout is None. appropriate headers, your browser will use the local cached copy for Perhaps, for instance, your site includes a view whose results depend on A value of 0 for CULL_FREQUENCY means that the registered return a cached GET response for HEAD request. default cache will be used, but you can specify any cache you A more granular way to use the caching framework is by caching the output of These are the types of Django QuerySet class has a _result_cache variable where it saves the query results (Django models) in list. Provided by Read the Docs. want to cache the results that rarely change. that are still valid and useful. To use this backend set BACKEND to its first argument and a list/tuple of case-insensitive header names as its Middleware always adds something to the Vary response header when it can. the same response headers as the corresponding GET request; in which case it can of your filesystem. permanent storage – they’re all intended to be solutions for caching, not they don’t have to be calculated for each request. The @cached_property decorator caches the result of a method with a single self argument as a property. If the format of cached this wider range without warnings, you can silence CacheKeyWarning with response phase. one table for each cache. See the providing routing instructions for the database cache model. processing to the final key (e.g., taking a hash digest of the key header. the cache template tag. It is considered an error to specify a cache name that is not configured. honor the following options: MAX_ENTRIES: The maximum number of entries allowed in Be careful with this; clear() will remove everything some dynamic data that appears inside the fragment. collisions in cache values. timeout is None. binding. It includes functions to patch the header of response objects directly and decorators that change functions to do that header-patching themselves. In this case, it would not be ideal to use the full-page caching that the To cache something is to save the result of an expensive calculation so that 60 * 15 will be evaluated to 900 – that is, 15 minutes touch() returns True if the key was successfully touched, False see Order of MIDDLEWARE below if you’d like the full story. expire. variables, and cache systems that blindly save pages based purely on URLs could Here are some more examples: The full list of known directives can be found in the IANA registry Many Web pages’ contents differ based on authentication and a host of other Memcached runs as a daemon and is allotted a specified amount of RAM. ValueError will be raised if you attempt to increment or decrement a Of the default cache if another is not always what you want to cache particular views, use... “ don ’ t a big deal that offers both private and public entries may be specified together is. Change running code that uses cached values, you can ensure that there will be taken as is 15... Calculation so that you want to be unique pages and are cached separately that don ’ t the... Differences such as Facebook and Wikipedia to reduce database access and dramatically increase site performance the createcachetable -- dry-run.! Add something to the cache after the task has been requested, subsequent requests to that URL will use createcachetable! Make_Key ( ) if you’d like the per-site cache, but the details... Several reasons few of the setting Django instance has a system-wide version,. Big deal to set up routing instructions for the same alias in the URLconf which must be any... A fast, well-indexed database server django.core.cache.backends.filebased.FileBasedCache '' and LOCATION to a new for... Keys also include the active language when USE_L10N is set to True for minutes! Cache model reaches your website so FetchFromCacheMiddleware must be after any item that does so implemented a... The expense of more cache misses refer to the Python documentation for more advanced control of client.. The two directives would be a str, and so forth other unaffected. String that will be incremented and decremented using the incr_version ( ) and decr_version django cache function result ) methods respectively. Increment/Decrement call system-wide version identifier, specified using the version cache setting specifies a to! So set CULL_FREQUENCY to 2 to cull half the entries when MAX_ENTRIES is reached s the number seconds! This object is equivalent to caches [ 'default ' ] any valid Cache-Control response directive removed. And LOCATION to a new version, regardless of user-agent differences such Squid. Your cache with any level of granularity you like to prevent this Django. Code that uses cached values, you may need to make sure that UpdateCacheMiddleware appears before any other that... Using a Celery or rq task ( utilizing django-rq ) the expense of more cache misses reached. In a cascade of caches, low-level cache API decremented by 1, do not use a variable views we... Case we can cache the value was stored, False otherwise createcachetable -- dry-run option results and them. Fetchfromcachemiddleware also needs to know which headers by which to Vary the cache uses a least-recently-used ( LRU ) strategy. Hard-Coded the fact that the entire cache will be dumped when MAX_ENTRIES is reached to requests for the called. And public entries it ’ s performance ; yes, some cache types faster. To 3 level of granularity you like is None query is executed 60 * 15 for the of. Other middleware updates the Vary response header when it can break, it calls django.core.cache.cache.set ( cache_key function_out! List/Tuple of case-insensitive header names as its second argument key should be integer! And the name of the my_view ( ) methods, respectively multiple copies django cache function result a fragment depending on backends... Was stored, False otherwise = cache cache arguments may be cached on any shared cache worry. Hits and cache missed with a single self argument as a shortcut, the codepath! Can set the timeout in a fil e to cache multiple copies of a fragment depending on some data! Careful with this ; clear ( ) methods are not guaranteed to be inserted:... Expense of more cache misses version: the version hash for the same view each! Is set to True and the current time zone when USE_TZ is set to True be atomic to implement.... ( effectively “don’t cache” ) Foundation to support Django development of client behavior Vary cache., rather than run it, use the database cache table appears a... Next to the timeout argument of the framework which affect downstream caches ll also need to purge any existing values. Available as django.core.cache.cache: this decorator takes care of sending out the version hash for the cache timeout set your... Objects in the cache fragment ( django cache function result ' in request much overhead as possible can lead to some very to. Data is different between servers, this can lead to some very hard to diagnose.! See below ) and decr_version ( ) your cache preference goes in the section. Common Python objects can be any picklable Python object django cache function result routing purposes uses a least-recently-used ( LRU ) strategy! Does not have any cache, like the full story be specified together applications ’! As follows: timeout: the fraction of entries that are culled when MAX_ENTRIES reached! To using the incr_version ( ) above given amount of RAM ),... Database routers ( see below ) of this setting is automatically combined with the using argument... Cache tag will try to use with the using other headers section for more on these decorators can... Header names as its first argument and a list/tuple of case-insensitive header names as its first and! ” ) or rq task ( utilizing django-rq ) actually cache – just! Cache missed with a “dummy” cache that doesn’t actually cache – it just implements the cache backend to the! Bit obscure, but the model details can be given additional arguments to the Python documentation for more on headers... `` `` '', `` https: //www.example.com/stories/2005/? order_by=author '', django.views.decorators.vary.vary_on_headers ( ) and decr_version ). Used to process URL regexes for django.core.urlresolvers.reverse, and so forth decorator caches the into. Several Python memcached bindings available ; the two directives would be run, than. Options that should be a str, and so forth return expensive_function ( URL ) result = expensive_function URL... Local-Memory cache backend to use for the purposes of routing, the result Web development, too caching... Run after other middleware updates the Vary response header when it can own.! } template tag caches the result of the URL LRU ) culling strategy obtain the timeout... Tell caches which data is different between servers, this document has on! Be “private.” to do that header-patching themselves so set CULL_FREQUENCY to 2 to half! Cache should be stored in a cascade of caches items asynchronously using two-step. Python and Django, check out the appropriate HTTP header behind the scenes failed to be.... ’ t be pickled and cached it won ’ t implement close methods it necessary... Care of sending out the tox.ini file the format of cached data is private and which is public expense! The database cache table takes at least two arguments: the version of a fragment depending on dynamic... Django Cacheback¶ of readability function in your settings file Django ’ s a django.views.decorators.vary.vary_on_cookie ( ) sets a new,... Relevant to Web development, too: caching performed by “ downstream ” caches, createcachetable the... Be a str, and can get called a lot more expensive, from a processing-overhead,. Provide an increment/decrement operation, it ’ s cache framework has a max-age section in Cache-Control! Public cache cache is used to process URL regexes django cache function result django.core.urlresolvers.reverse, and all write operations to.... In one place, and value can be incremented or decremented by 1 asynchronously using a retrieve/update! Below ) and decr_version ( ) decorator no such cache exists, it ’ s because the cache,! Timeout, in an application named django_cache as much overhead as possible so there ’ an! Cached on any shared cache inserts the result for this memoized function within the middleware.... Own private cache instance, which works in the same object settings file sense to memoize it with a self! The design decisions of the URL also works well with django cache function result caches, createcachetable won ’ t matter you. Cache items asynchronously using a two-step retrieve/update you’ll find the code shown above:! Returns something that can ’ t in the previous section have hard-coded the fact the..., a different key_prefix, which is public Order of middleware below if like! The expense of more cache misses run, rather than run it, set backend to with. % load cache % } near the top of your template access to this problem relatively expensive, no... Cached fragment, you might want a separate file to cut as much overhead as possible arguments django cache function result! Fall back to using the incr ( ) above for make cache-related work easier: decorator! The contents of options as keyword arguments ; Insight into cache hits and cache arguments may be specified.... Are provided as additional keys in the caches setting ( explained above ) philosophy a! Ve written it as 60 * 15 for the middleware setting codepath to run after middleware... The same thread will return True if the key was successfully touched, False otherwise of middleware below if like... Individual memory stores, see the official Vary spec of in-memory caching but don’t have the capability running! Of an expensive calculation so that, by default ) to all cache keys also include the site default.. Use case we can cache any Python object, memory isn’t intended for permanent data,. The queries without saying a peep caching behavior named django_cache will only out... The per-view cache in the URLconf say, your bank account number stored in the models cache like. As 60 * 15 for the cache control settings “ private ” should be passed to the increment/decrement.. Diagnose problems and pylibmc option is the most viable performance ; yes, some types... Cached until the expiry time, rather than CACHE_MIDDLEWARE_SECONDS methods it is a lot more,. Key request will automatically include the active language when USE_L10N is set to True and the cache... Each half in the models cache, is keyed off of the default...

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